Earth Warming Effect Only Due to CFC Destruction of Stratospheric Ozone!
- Jul 16, 2013 12:00 pm GMT
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A greater than normal warming occurred from 1966 until 2002 but no measurements confirm an increase in CO2 emissions, whether anthropogenic or natural, had any effect on global temperatures. As a matter of fact, all atmospheric gases and dust in our atmosphere cools our planet, they doesn't warm it. There is very strong evidence that anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the only cause of the near recent abnormal warming. CFCs were used primarily in air conditioning units. Acting in accordance with an international treaty called the Montreal Protocol (1987); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated the phase-out of CFCs (R-22) through the Clean Air Act.
CFCs and other halides created both unnatural atmospheric cooling and warming based on these facts. CFCs destroyed ozone in the lower stratosphere-upper troposphere causing these zones in the atmosphere to cool 1.37 o C from 1966 to 1998. The ozone loss allowed more UV light to pass through the stratosphere at a sufficient rate to warm the lower troposphere plus 10" of the earth by 0.48 o C (1966 to 1998) . The effect of banning CFC production started having its effect around 2002. Since 2002 there has been no warming, see Figure 1.
Figure 1. Global Mean Temperature, 1901 to 2010.
Stratospheric ozone was diminished by CFCs and other refrigerants-propellants released into the atmosphere. These compounds are broken down by the sun's UV rays and release chlorine and bromine molecules that destroy the ozone. Scientists estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules over its life in the stratosphere. With less ozone in the stratosphere, more UV rays hit earth, warming it up and increasing the risk of skin cancer.
The ozone layer extends from 8 km (upper troposphere) up throughout the stratosphere. It is well known that the warming of the stratosphere is caused by the reaction of ultraviolet light with ozone. Energy is absorbed and ozone (O3) converts to diatomic (O2) and (O) nascent oxygen. Conversely, ozone loss decreases the amount of UV light absorbed and thus causes the stratosphere to cool.
Figure 2. Antarctic ozone over time.
Figure 2 shows the lowest value of ozone measured by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) each year , a satellite instrument used to determine ozone levels. CFCs, chlorinated solvents, halons, methyl bromide, methyl chloride and Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the stratosphere have begun a slow decline after reaching a peak in the mid 1990s. The slow reduction is the result of the Montreal Protocol of 1987 and later amendments. CFC production ceased in developed countries in 2000 and stopped in underdeveloped countries in 2010. The decline is now about 1% per year and the ozone is also now increasing slightly in the stratosphere.
By around 2100 the ozone should be back to the levels seen in 1980. Ozone in the year 2002 was higher in the ozone hole because of unusually high temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere (probably due to more interaction with air outside of the Antarctic region).
The global average ozone is about 300 Dobson units. Before 1980 ozone less than 200 Dobson units was rarely seen. In recent years ozone near 100 Dobson units has become normal in the ozone hole. The Dobson unit is the most common unit for measuring ozone concentration. One Dobson unit is the number of molecules of ozone that would be required to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 millimeters thick at the surface of the earth at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.
The legendary hypotheses of Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and Sherwood Rowland, and led to CFCs being banned because they were destroying stratospheric ozone Total stratospheric organic chlorine is currently over 2.5 ppbv, see Figure 3.
Figure 3. Stratospheric Chlorine.
One can see how the reduction in stratospheric chlorine has affected global temperature. As it stopped its rise in 1998 and started decreasing around 2002 the temperature also started decreasing slightly (refer back to Figure 1).
Since 1966 it is apparent that CFC destruction of stratospheric ozone was the only mechanism that caused the earth to warm. Since 2000 when CFC production was stopped in developed countries and CFC concentration in the stratosphere stopped increasing, the earth temperature has not increased.
Recently, Qing-Bin Lu of the University of Waterloo stated, "a new theoretical calculation on the greenhouse effect of halogenated gases shows that they (mainly CFCs) could alone result in the global surface temperature rise of ~0.6°C from 1970-2002. These results provide solid evidence that recent global warming was indeed caused by the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic halogenated gases".
The author is pleased that someone else has determined that CFCs not CO2 and has caused the earth to warm. The author discovered the CFC effect back in 2009, Dr. Lu has been touting this for years as well but most scientists haven't accepted it. Well, in the author's opinion as well as Dr. Lu's they are wrong.
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Effect of Halogenated Molecules: Culprits for Atmospheric Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change,
DOI: 10.1142/S0217979213500732, May 30, 2013.