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Iran and Oil Prices in 2018

The turn of the year brought the usual year-end analyses of energy events, along with predictions and issues to watch in the year to come. I tend to focus on tallies of risks and large uncertainties. There’s no shortage of those this year, and the current unrest in Iran moves the risks associated with that country higher up the list, at least for now.

The implications of instability in Iran extend well beyond oil prices, but let’s focus there for now. The sources of instability include both the internal economic and political concerns apparently behind the protests, as well as US-Iran relations and the fate of the Iran nuclear deal and related sanctions.

As former Energy Department official Joe McMonigle noted, a decision by President Trump to allow US sanctions on Iranian oil exports to go back into effect could remove up to one million barrels per day of crude oil from the global market. He sees the protests making the reinstatement of sanctions likelier. Whether that would lead directly to much higher oil prices is harder to gauge.

A little history is in order. Sanctions on Iran, including those covering the receipt of Iranian oil exports, were one of the main tools that brought its government to the nuclear negotiating table. For a roughly three-year span beginning in late 2011, international sanctions reduced Iran’s oil exports by more than one million barrels per day, at a cumulative cost exceeding $100 billion based on oil prices at the time. The effectiveness of those sanctions was also enhanced by the rapid growth of US oil production from shale.

Starting in 2011, expanding US “tight oil” production from shale began to reduce US oil imports and eased the market pressures that had driven oil back over $100 per barrel as the world recovered from the financial crisis and recession of 2008-9. In the process, shale made it possible for tough oil sanctions to be imposed on Iran and sustained without creating a global oil price shock.

Instead, oil prices actually declined over the period of tightest sanctions. By 2014 US oil output had grown by more than Iran’s entire, pre-sanctions exports and cut US oil imports so much that OPEC effectively lost control of oil prices. Seeking to drive shale producers out of the market, OPEC’s leadership switched tactics and attempted to flood the market, driving the price of oil briefly below $30. That cut even further into Iran’s already-reduced oil revenues and put the country’s leadership in an untenable position, forcing them to negotiate limits on their nuclear program.

If Iran’s oil exports were to drop again this year, for whatever reason, the impact on oil prices would depend on the extent to which the factors that allowed us to absorb such a curtailment just a few years ago have changed. One measure of that is that after several years of painfully low prices–at least for producers–the price of the Brent crude global oil benchmark is now well over $60. Yesterday it flirted with $68/barrel, a three-year high.

That recovery is the result of a roughly 18-month slowdown in US oil production in 2015-16, an agreement between OPEC and key non-OPEC producers like Russia to cut output by around 1.2 million barrels per day, and production problems in places as diverse as Venezuela and the North Sea.

These events have largely put the oil market back into balance and worked off much of the excess oil inventories that had accumulated since 2014. Commercial US crude oil inventories, which are among the most transparently reported in the world, have fallen 100 million barrels since their peak last spring. However, they remain about 100 million barrels above their typical pre-2014 levels.

Viewed from that perspective, a reduction in supply from any source might be exptected to send prices higher. However, although global oil demand is still growing, we should realize that today’s tighter oil market is largely the result of voluntary restraint, rather than shortages. Potential production increases from the rest of OPEC, Russia and the US could more than compensate for another big drop in Iran’s oil exports.

In particular, US shale output has been climbing again for the last year, boosted by rising prices and the amazing productivity of the venerable Permian Basin of Texas. Meanwhile, production from the deepwater Gulf of Mexico is also increasing as projects begun when oil was still over $100 reach completion. In its latest forecast the US Energy Information Administration projected that US crude production will reach an all-time high averaging 10 million barrels per day this year. Despite that, US shale producers still have thousands of “drilled-but-uncompleted” wells, or DUCs, waiting in the wings.

So, short of instability in Iran morphing into a regional conflict involving Saudi Arabia and the other Gulf producers, oil prices might drift higher but would be unlikely to spike anywhere near $100. And that’s without factoring in the scenario suggested by the Financial Times’ Nick Butler, who proposes that the Iranian government might choose to break the OPEC/Russia deal and increase their oil exports, in order to boost their economy and mollify the protesters, thereby shoring up the regime.

The last point brings us back from a narrow focus on oil prices to larger geopolitical uncertainties. As a noted Iran expert at the Council on Foreign Relations recently observed, Iran’s religious government faces challenges similar to those that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

It’s far from clear that 2018 will be Iran’s 1989, or that President Rouhani is capable of becoming his country’s Mikhail Gorbachev. Yet surely the 2015 nuclear agreement was a bet by the US and its “P5+1” partners that Iran would be a very different nation by the time its main provisions start to expire in the next decade. The whole world would win if that prediction came true.

On that note I’d like to wish my readers a happy start to the New Year. My top resolution is to post here more frequently and more regularly than in 2017. 

Photo Credit: Blondinrikard Fröberg via Flickr

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